Vaccine check! Have you completed all the recommended vaccines for your children most especially the MMR? With my kids, we’re catching up with their vaccines. We make sure to consult our trusted pediatrician for the important vaccines that they should have. Recommended and Medical expert-approved vaccination protects children from serious illness and complications of vaccine-preventable diseases which can include amputation of an arm or leg, paralysis of limbs, hearing loss, convulsions, brain damage, and death.
I created this post as a reminder for parents about the importance of MMR vaccine and other related updates. I actually plan to publish this last March but you know Mommy got preoccupied with Super Mommy duties. Thankful that my fellow mom completed the details for this post.
Measles Outbreak 2018
Measles Outbreak 2018. “Measles is a vaccine-preventable disease and we should have zero cases. So even if we have just one to two cases, it is considered an outbreak and transmission must be controlled,” explained Health Undersecretary Enrique Domingo.
According to Rappler, Published January 23, 2018 In Davao Region a measles outbreak with 224 cases identified with measles infection, 4 children had died from the highly-infectious viral disease. Out of the 224 cases, 119 were not vaccinated, adding that majority of the patients were children.. Abdullah Dumama, DOH XI director, confirmed the figures on Tuesday, January 23.
Published February 24, 2018, Measles outbreak had been declared in Zamboanga City, which has a total of 166 cases so far in 2018. The lone fatality is the case of a 6-month-old boy who died on February 6.
Published March 01, 2018, The Department of Health (DOH) declared a measles outbreak in a barangay in Taguig City on Thursday, March 1. Health Undersecretary Enrique Domingo told Rappler that the barangay, which he did not name, recorded 7 cases of kids getting measles in the past weeks. But he assured the public that the 7 children are “fine.”
Published March 06, 2018, Negros Oriental is now the 4th major area in the Philippines where a measles outbreak has been declared by the government. A total of 7 areas in the province are reporting cases of measles. The exact number of cases has yet to be announced according to Rappler.
Published March 20, 2018, Mayor Isidro Zayco said Monday, March 19, the declaration of a measles outbreak in his city was based on the guidelines set by the Department of Health. Kabankalan City in Southern Negros Occidental has 3 cases of measles were confirmed.
Source link: https://www.rappler.com
What is Measles?
Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus. Once quite common, measles can now almost always be prevented with a vaccine. The cause of measles is a virus that replicates in the nose and throat of an infected child or adult, typically begins with a mild to moderate fever, often accompanied by a persistent cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis) and sore throat. This relatively mild illness may last two or three days.
Acute illness and rash. The rash consists of small red spots, some of which are slightly raised. Spots and bumps in tight clusters give the skin a splotchy red appearance. The face breaks out first, particularly behind the ears and along the hairline. Over the next few days, the rash spreads down the arms and trunk, then over the thighs, lower legs and feet. At the same time, fever rises sharply, often as high as 104 to 105.8 F (40 to 41 C). The measles rash gradually recedes, fading first from the face and last from the thighs and feet.
Communicable period. A person with measles can spread the virus to others for about eight days, starting four days before the rash appears and ending when the rash has been present for four days. When someone with measles coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale them. You can contract the virus by putting your fingers in your mouth or nose or rubbing your eyes after touching the infected surface. The infected droplets may also land on a surface, where they remain active and contagious for several hours.
Measles signs and symptoms appear 10 to 14 days after exposure to the virus.
Signs and symptoms include:
- Dry cough
- Runny nose
- Sore throat
- Inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis)
- Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers on a red background found inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek — also called Koplik’s spots
- A skin rash made up of large, flat blotches that often flow into one another
Risk factors include:
- Being unvaccinated. If you haven’t received the vaccine for measles, you’re much more likely to develop the disease.
- Traveling internationally. If you travel to developing countries, where measles is more common, you’re at higher risk of catching the disease.
- Having a vitamin A deficiency. If you don’t have enough vitamin A in your diet, you’re more likely to contract measles and to have more-severe symptoms.
- Ear infection. One of the most common complications of measles is a bacterial ear infection.
- Bronchitis, laryngitis or croup. Measles may lead to inflammation of your voice box (larynx) or inflammation of the inner walls that line the main air passageways of your lungs (bronchial tubes).
- Pneumonia. Pneumonia is a common complication of measles. People with compromised immune systems can develop an especially dangerous variety of pneumonia that is sometimes fatal.
- Encephalitis. About 1 in 1,000 people with measles develops encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain that may cause vomiting, convulsions, and, rarely, coma or even death. Encephalitis can closely follow measles, or it can occur months later.
- Pregnancy problems. If you’re pregnant, you need to take special care to avoid measles because the disease can cause pregnancy loss, preterm labor or low birth weight.
- Low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). Measles may lead to a decrease in platelets — the type of blood cells that are essential for blood clotting.
- Isolation. Measles is highly contagious from about four days before to four days after the rash breaks out, people with measles shouldn’t return to activities in which they interact with other people during this period.
- It may also be necessary to keep non-immunized people away from the infected person.
- Vaccinate. Be sure that anyone who’s at risk of getting the measles who hasn’t been fully vaccinated receives the (MMR) measles vaccine as soon as possible.
MMR is a safe and effective combined vaccine that protects against three separate illnesses – measles, mumps and rubella (German measles). This comes in a single injection either the muscle of the thigh or upper arm and full course requires two doses.
Measles, mumps and rubella are highly infectious conditions that can have serious, and potentially fatal complications such as meningitis, swelling of the brain (encephalitis) and deafness.
They can also lead to complications in pregnancy and later affect the unborn baby. It can even lead to miscarriage.
It’s important to ensure that you and your children are up-to-date with the MMR vaccination since there are outbreaks and cases of measles in recent years.
When to have MMR vaccine?
The MMR vaccine can sometimes be given to babies from six months of age if they may have been exposed to the measles virus, or during a measles outbreak.
The vaccine is not usually effective for babies under six months old so they should not be routinely given MMR vaccine. It is because babies under six months have maternal bodies so the vaccine will not retain to their body. However, these maternal bodies will decline and are almost gone when the child reached the age of one.
However, these children may not have enough protection from this early dose, so they will still need the standard MMR doses at 12-13 months and 40 months of age.
It’s good to have MMR vaccination if you are planning to get pregnant. This may protect you from infections that often leads to serious birth defects and miscarriage. But, you should avoid becoming pregnant for one month after having MMR vaccination.
Reminders before vaccination
Tell the person who is giving your child the vaccine if your child:
- Has any severe, life-threatening allergies. A person who has ever had a life-threatening allergic reaction after a dose of MMRV vaccine, or has a severe allergy to any part of this vaccine, may be advised not to be vaccinated. Ask your health care provider if you want information about vaccine components.
- Has a weakened immune system due to disease (such as cancer or HIV/AIDS) or medical treatments (such as radiation, immunotherapy, steroids, or chemotherapy).
- Has a history of seizures, or has a parent, brother, or sister with a history of seizures.
- Has a parent, brother, or sister with a history of immune system problems.
- Has ever had a condition that makes them bruise or bleed easily.
- Is pregnant or might be pregnant. MMRV vaccine should not be given during pregnancy.
- Is taking salicylates (such as aspirin). People should avoid using salicylates for 6 weeks after getting a vaccine that contains varicella.
- Has recently had a blood transfusion or received other blood products. You might be advised to postpone MMRV vaccination of your child for at least 3 months.
- Has tuberculosis.
- Has gotten any other vaccines in the past 4 weeks. Live vaccines given too close together might not work as well.
- Is not feeling well. If your child has a mild illness, such as a cold, he or she can probably get the vaccine today. If your child is moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until the child recovers. Your doctor can advise you.
Should You Get Vaccinated After Being Exposed to Measles, Mumps, or Rubella?
If you do not have immunity against measles, mumps, or rubella and are exposed to someone with one of these diseases, talk with your doctor about getting vaccine. It is not harmful to get vaccine after being exposed to measles, mumps, or rubella, and doing so may possibly prevent later disease.
Source link: https://www.cdc.gov
PHILIPPINES – The National Immunization Program (NIP)
Because measles kills, every infant needs to be vaccinated against measles at the age of 9 months or as soon as possible after 9 months as part of the routine infant vaccination schedule. It is safe to vaccinate a sick child who is suffering from a minor illness (cough, cold, diarrhea, fever or malnutrition) or who has already been vaccinated against measles.
If the vaccination schedule is interrupted, it is not necessary to restart. Instead, the schedule should be resumed using minimal intervals between doses to catch up as quickly as possible.
Routine Immunization Schedule for Infants
The standard routine immunization schedule for infants in the Philippines is adopted to provide maximum immunity against the seven vaccine preventable diseases in the country before the child’s first birthday. The fully immunized child must have completed BCG 1, DPT 1, DPT 2, DPT 3, OPV 1, OPV 2, OPV 3, HB 1, HB 2, HB 3 and measles vaccines before the child is 12 months of age.
- BCG vaccine, single dose given at birth
- Monovalent Hepatitis B vaccine given at birth
- DPT-Hib-Hep B vaccine, 3 doses given at 6-10-14 weeks of age
- Oral Polio vaccine (OPV), 3 doses given at 6-10-14 weeks of age, a single dose of Inactivated Polio vaccine (IPV) is given with the 3rd dose of OPV at 14 weeks
- Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), 3 doses given at 6-10-14 weeks of age
- Rotavirus vaccine given at a minimum age of 6 weeks with a minimum interval of 4 weeks between doses. The last dose should be administered not later than 32 weeks of age.
- Measles-containing vaccine (either monovalent measles vaccine or MMR) given at 9 months of age
- Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine given at 12 months of age
A school based immunization program to provide catch-up doses for school children and adolescents has been established . Measles-Rubella (MR) and Tetanus-Diphtheria
- (Td) vaccines are administered to Grade 1 and Grade 7 students enrolled in public schools.
- Human Papillomavirus (HPV) shall be given to female children 9-10 years old at health facilities in priority provinces. Quadrivalent HPV 2 doses are given at 0, 6 months.
Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine (JE)
- Given subcutaneously
- Given at a minimum age of 9 months
- Children 9 months to 17 years of age should receive one primary dose followed by a booster dose 12-24 months after the primary dose
Individuals 18 years and older should receive a single dose only
- Influenza Vaccine (Trivalent/Quadrivalent)
- Trivalent influenza vaccine given intramuscularly (IM) or subcutaneously (SC)
- Quadrivalent influenza vaccine given intramuscularly (IM)
Given at a minimum age of 6 months
- The dose of influenza vaccine is 0.25 ml for children 6 months to 35 months and 0.5 ml for children 36 months to 18 years
- Children 6 to 8 years receiving influenza vaccine for the first time should receive 2 doses separated by at least 4 weeks. If only one dose was given during the previous influenza season, give 2 doses of the vaccine then 1 dose yearly thereafter.
- Children aged 9 to 18 years should receive 1 dose of the vaccine yearly
Annual vaccination should begin in February but may be given throughout the year.
- Hemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine (Hib)
- Given intramuscularly (IM)
Indications for children with high risk conditions: chemotherapy recipients, anatomic/ functional asplenia including sickle cell disease, HIV infection, immunoglobulin or early complementary deficiency
- Children aged 12-59 months
- Unimmunized or with one dose of Hib vaccine received before age 12 months, give 2 doses of Hib vaccine 8 weeks apart
- Given 2 doses of Hib vaccine before age 12 months give an additional dose
- Children 5 years old and older who received a Hib booster dose during or within 14 days of starting chemotherapy/radiation treatment should receive a repeat dose of the vaccine at least 3 months after completion of therapy.
Vaccines for adults
- Immunizations are not just for children. Protection from some childhood vaccines can wear off over time. You may also be at risk for vaccine-preventable disease due to your age, job, lifestyle, travel, or health conditions.
- All adults need immunizations to help them prevent getting and spreading serious diseases that could result in poor health, missed work, medical bills, and not being able to care for family.
- All adults need a seasonal flu (influenza) vaccine every year. Flu vaccine is especially important for people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, and older adults.
- Every adult should get the Tdap vaccine once if they did not receive it as an adolescent to protect against pertussis (whooping cough), and then a Td (tetanus, diphtheria) booster shot every 10 years. In addition, women should get the Tdap vaccine each time they are pregnant, preferably at 27 through 36 weeks.
- Adults 19-26
HPV vaccine which protects against the human papillomaviruses that causes most cervical cancers, anal cancer, and genital warts. It is recommended for:
- Women up to age 26 years
- Men up to age 21 years
- Men ages 22-26 who have sex with men
- Adults 60 years or older
In addition to seasonal flu (influenza) vaccine and Td or Tdap vaccine (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis), you should also get:
- Pneumococcal vaccines, which protect against pneumococcal disease, including infections in the lungs and bloodstream (recommended for all adults over 65 years old, and for adults younger than 65 years who have certain chronic health conditions)
- Zoster vaccine, which protects against shingles (recommended for adults 60 years or older)
- Pregnant women
If you are pregnant, the two vaccines you’ll need during each pregnancy are:
- Tdap (preferably between 27 and 36 weeks of pregnancy) to help protect against whooping cough, and
- The flu shot (during flu season, which is October through May) to help protect against influenza.
You may also need other vaccines. Talk with your ob-gyne to find out which vaccines are recommended to help protect you and your baby.
Researcher: Mei Redillas